Despite the unstable situation, Libya remains an immigration hotspot. Its main draw is economic opportunity, but the country is also a final point of departure for refugees and asylum-seekers attempting to reach Europe.
Late 2021, about 620 000 immigrants were present in Libya including 42 000 refugees (data: IOM & UNHCR)
There are a dozen official detention centres in Libya They hold a combined total of 5,000 prisoners. But a number of secrets, unlawful detention centres also exist, controlled by smugglers and human traffickers.
Once they are detained, prisoners never know when they will get out. Some of them escape, others are able to buy their freedom, many languish in jail for months or even years.
This indeterminate and hopeless delay is devastating, both physically and psychologically.